Poland And The Munich Agreement

Two local self-management councils, Polish and Czech, have been created. First, the two national councils claimed all Cieszyn Silesia, the Polish Rada Narodowa Ksi-stwa Cieszyéskiego in its declaration « Ludu`l ski! » of 30 October 31, 1918, after the First World War and the dissolution of Austria and Hungary, most of the territory was taken over by the local Polish authorities. The short-term interim agreement of 2 November 1918 reflected the inability of the two National Councils to achieve a final delimitation,[2] and on 5 November 1918 the region was divided by another interim agreement between Poland and Czechoslovakia. [3] In 1919, councils were absorbed by the newly created and independent central governments of Prague and Warsaw. Meanwhile, the British government has asked Benea to ask for a mediator. As he did not want to sever his government`s relations with Western Europe, the heirs reluctantly agreed. The British appointed Lord Runciman, the former Liberal cabinet minister, who arrived in Prague on 3 August to convince Benes to accept an acceptable plan for the Sudeten Germans. [23] On 20 July, Bonnet informed the Czechoslovakian ambassador in Paris that France, while publicly declaring its support for the Czechoslovakian negotiations, was not prepared to go to war on the Sudetenland. [23] In August, the German press was full of stories of Czechoslovakian atrocities against the Sudeten Germans, with the intention of forcing the West to put pressure on the Czechoslovakians to make concessions.

[24] Hitler hoped that the Czechoslovaks would refuse and that the West would feel morally justified in abandoning the Czechoslovaks to their fate. [25] In August, Germany sent 750,000 troops along the border with Czechoslovakia, officially as part of military maneuvers. [9] [25] On September 4 or 5,[23] Erbe presented the fourth plan, which met almost all of the requirements of the agreement. The Sudeten Germans were invited by Hitler to the prairies to avoid compromise,[25] and the SdP organized demonstrations which, on 7 September, provoked a police operation in Ostrava, during which two of its deputies were arrested. [23] The Sudeten Germans used the incident and the false allegations of other atrocities as a pretext to interrupt further negotiations. [23] The American historian William L. Shirer, in his « The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich » (1960), considered that Czechoslovakia, although Hitler was not bluffing about its intention to invade, could have resisted significantly. Shirer believed that Britain and France had sufficient air defence to avoid severe bombing of London and Paris, and could have waged a swift and fruitful war against Germany. [66] He quotes Churchill as saying that the agreement means that « Britain and France are in a much worse position than Hitler`s Germany. » [61] After personally inspecting the Czech fortifications, Hitler privately told Joseph Goebbels that « we shed a lot of blood » and that it was fortunate that there had been no fighting. [67] The agreement was generally welcomed.

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